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PXE+DHCP+TFTP+Cobbler 无人值守安装CentOS 7

时间:2017-09-04  来源:未知  作者:admin666

Cobbler(补鞋匠)是通过将DHCP、TFTP、DNS、HTTP等服务进行集成,创建一个中央管理节点,其可以实现的功能有配置服务,创建存储库,解压缩操作系统媒介,代理或集成一个配置管理系统,控制电源管理等。 Cobbler的最终目的是实现无需进行人工干预即可安装机器。

  pxe概述
  预启动执行环境(Preboot eXecution Environment,PXE,也被称为预执行环境)是让计算机通过网卡独立地使用数据设备(如硬盘)或者安装操作系统

    PXE Client发送广播包请求DHCP分配IP地址DHCP
    Server回复请求,给出IP地址以及Boot
    Server的地址PXE下载引导文件执行引导程序

总结来说,

  pxe客户端会调用网际协议(ip)、用户数据报协议(udp)、动态主机设定协议(DHCP)、小型文件传输协议(TFTP)

  pxe客户端(client)指机器在pxe启动过程中的角色。一个pxe客户端可以是一台服务器、笔记本电脑或者其他装有pxe启动代码的机器

  PXE主要是通过广播的方式发送一个包,并请注获取一个地址,而后交给TFTP程序下载一个引导文件。

cobbler和Kickstart批量装机软件

 Cobbler由python语言开发,是对PXE和Kickstart以及DHCP的封装。融合很多特性,提供了CLI和Web的管理形式。更加方便的实行网络安装。同时,Cobbler也提供了API接口,使用其它语言也很容易做扩展。它不紧可以安装物理机,同时也支持kvm、xen虚拟化、Guest OS的安装。更多的是它还能结合Puppet等集中化管理软件,实现自动化的管理。

  Kickstart 是一种无人值守的安装方式,它的工作原理是在安装过程中记录人工干预填写的各种参数,并生成一个名为ks.cfg的文件。我们可以简单理解为一个自动安装应答配置管理程序。通过读取这个配置文件,系统知道怎么去分区,要安装什么包,配什么IP,优化什么内核参数等等 

  一句话总结:Cobbler补鞋匠是对Kickstart的封装,简化安装步骤、使用流程,官方号称补鞋匠都能学会的批量装机。

Cobbler 工作流程

server端:

    第一步,启动Cobbler服务
    第二步,进行Cobbler错误检查,执行cobbler check命令
    第三步,进行配置同步,执行cobbler sync命令
    第四步,复制相关启动文件文件到TFTP目录中
    第五步,启动DHCP服务,提供地址分配
    第六步,DHCP服务分配IP地址
    第七步,TFTP传输启动文件
    第八步,Server端接收安装信息
    第九步,Server端发送ISO镜像与Kickstart文件

Client端:

    第一步,客户端以PXE模式启动
    第二步,客户端获取IP地址
    第三步,通过TFTP服务器获取启动文件
    第四步,进入Cobbler安装选择界面
    第五步,客户端确定加载信息
    第六步,根据配置信息准备安装系统
    第七步,加载Kickstart文件
    第八步,传输系统安装的其它文件
    第九步,进行安装系统

正式环境准备:

  1.网络环境:host-only、nat网络,因为Cobbler需要用到自己的dhcp服务器,所以为了防止都在同一个网络造成dhcp获取混乱,需要切换网络!~ 

  2.类似安装服务必要的环境准备:1,关闭iptables,selinux 2,配置静态IP、设置主机名 并且在hosts文件下绑定 3.时间同步 4.配置本地iso镜像里的yum仓库,163源epel源 (安装软件)

cobbler server    -------    client
                  192.168.100.221/24  ------------------------------------  装机时候由DHCP自动配置

一.  在cobbler server上安装cobbler

  yum install cobbler cobbler-web tftp* rsync xinetd http* syslinux dhcp* pykickstart

[root@bokeyuan ~]# yum install cobbler cobbler-web tftp* rsync xinetd http* syslinux dhcp* pykickstart Loaded plugins: fastestmirror, langpacks Loading mirror speeds from cached hostfile Package rsync-3.0.9-17.el7.x86_64 already installed and latest version Package 12:dhcp-common-4.2.5-47.el7.CentOS.x86_64 already installed and latest version Package 12:dhcp-libs-4.2.5-47.el7.centos.x86_64 already installed and latest version Package pykickstart-1.99.66.10-1.el7.noarch already installed and latest version Resolving Dependencies --> Running transaction check ---> Package cobbler.noarch 0:2.6.3-1.el6 will be installed --> Processing Dependency: python-simplejson for package: cobbler-2.6.3-1.el6.noarch --> Processing Dependency: python-cheetah for package: cobbler-2.6.3-1.el6.noarch --> Processing Dependency: mod_wsgi for package: cobbler-2.6.3-1.el6.noarch --> Processing Dependency: PyYAML for package: cobbler-2.6.3-1.el6.noarch ---> Package cobbler-web.noarch 0:2.6.3-1.el6 will be installed --> Processing Dependency: mod_ssl for package: cobbler-web-2.6.3-1.el6.noarch --> Processing Dependency: Django for package: cobbler-web-2.6.3-1.el6.noarch ---> Package dhcp.x86_64 12:4.2.5-47.el7.centos will be installed ---> Package httpcomponents-client.noarch 0:4.2.5-5.el7_0 will be installed --> Processing Dependency: mvn(commons-logging:commons-logging) for package: httpcomponents-client-4.2.5-5.el7_0.noarch --> Processing Dependency: mvn(commons-codec:commons-codec) for package: httpcomponents-client-4.2.5-5.el7_0.noarch ---> Package httpcomponents-core.noarch 0:4.2.4-6.el7 will be installed ---> Package httpd.x86_64 0:2.4.6-45.el7.centos will be installed --> Processing Dependency: /etc/mime.types for package: httpd-2.4.6-45.el7.centos.x86_64 ---> Package httpd-devel.x86_64 0:2.4.6-45.el7.centos will be installed --> Processing Dependency: apr-util-devel for package: httpd-devel-2.4.6-45.el7.centos.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: apr-devel for package: httpd-devel-2.4.6-45.el7.centos.x86_64 ---> Package httpd-manual.noarch 0:2.4.6-45.el7.centos will be installed ---> Package httpd-tools.x86_64 0:2.4.6-45.el7.centos will be installed ---> Package syslinux.x86_64 0:4.05-13.el7 will be installed ---> Package tftp.x86_64 0:5.2-13.el7 will be installed ---> Package tftp-server.x86_64 0:5.2-13.el7 will be installed ---> Package xinetd.x86_64 2:2.3.15-13.el7 will be installed --> Running transaction check ---> Package Django14.noarch 0:1.4.20-1.el6 will be installed --> Processing Dependency: python(abi) = 2.6 for package: Django14-1.4.20-1.el6.noarch --> Processing Dependency: python-simplejson for package: Django14-1.4.20-1.el6.noarch ---> Package PyYAML.x86_64 0:3.10-11.el7 will be installed --> Processing Dependency: libyaml-0.so.2()(64bit) for package: PyYAML-3.10-11.el7.x86_64 ---> Package apache-commons-codec.noarch 0:1.8-7.el7 will be installed ---> Package apache-commons-logging.noarch 0:1.1.2-7.el7 will be installed --> Processing Dependency: mvn(logkit:logkit) for package: apache-commons-logging-1.1.2-7.el7.noarch --> Processing Dependency: mvn(log4j:log4j) for package: apache-commons-logging-1.1.2-7.el7.noarch --> Processing Dependency: mvn(avalon-framework:avalon-framework-api) for package: apache-commons-logging-1.1.2-7.el7.noarch ---> Package apr-devel.x86_64 0:1.4.8-3.el7 will be installed ---> Package apr-util-devel.x86_64 0:1.5.2-6.el7 will be installed --> Processing Dependency: openldap-devel(x86-64) for package: apr-util-devel-1.5.2-6.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: libdb-devel(x86-64) for package: apr-util-devel-1.5.2-6.el7.x86_64 --> Processing Dependency: expat-devel(x86-64) for package: apr-util-devel-1.5.2-6.el7.x86_64 ---> Package cobbler.noarch 0:2.6.3-1.el6 will be installed --> Processing Dependency: python-simplejson for package: cobbler-2.6.3-1.el6.noarch --> Processing Dependency: python-cheetah for package: cobbler-2.6.3-1.el6.noarch ---> Package mailcap.noarch 0:2.1.41-2.el7 will be installed ---> Package mod_ssl.x86_64 1:2.4.6-45.el7.centos will be installed ---> Package mod_wsgi.x86_64 0:3.4-12.el7_0 will be installed --> Running transaction check ---> Package Django14.noarch 0:1.4.20-1.el6 will be installed --> Processing Dependency: python(abi) = 2.6 for package: Django14-1.4.20-1.el6.noarch --> Processing Dependency: python-simplejson for package: Django14-1.4.20-1.el6.noarch ---> Package avalon-framework.noarch 0:4.3-10.el7 will be installed --> Processing Dependency: xalan-j2 for package: avalon-framework-4.3-10.el7.noarch ---> Package avalon-logkit.noarch 0:2.1-14.el7 will be installed --> Processing Dependency: tomcat-servlet-3.0-api for package: avalon-logkit-2.1-14.el7.noarch --> Processing Dependency: jms for package: avalon-logkit-2.1-14.el7.noarch ---> Package cobbler.noarch 0:2.6.3-1.el6 will be installed --> Processing Dependency: python-simplejson for package: cobbler-2.6.3-1.el6.noarch --> Processing Dependency: python-cheetah for package: cobbler-2.6.3-1.el6.noarch ---> Package expat-devel.x86_64 0:2.1.0-8.el7 will be installed ---> Package libdb-devel.x86_64 0:5.3.21-19.el7 will be installed ---> Package libyaml.x86_64 0:0.1.4-11.el7_0 will be installed ---> Package log4j.noarch 0:1.2.17-15.el7 will be installed --> Processing Dependency: mvn(javax.mail:mail) for package: log4j-1.2.17-15.el7.noarch ---> Package openldap-devel.x86_64 0:2.4.40-13.el7 will be installed --> Processing Dependency: cyrus-sasl-devel(x86-64) for package: openldap-devel-2.4.40-13.el7.x86_64 --> Running transaction check ---> Package Django14.noarch 0:1.4.20-1.el6 will be installed --> Processing Dependency: python(abi) = 2.6 for package: Django14-1.4.20-1.el6.noarch --> Processing Dependency: python-simplejson for package: Django14-1.4.20-1.el6.noarch ---> Package cobbler.noarch 0:2.6.3-1.el6 will be installed --> Processing Dependency: python-simplejson for package: cobbler-2.6.3-1.el6.noarch --> Processing Dependency: python-cheetah for package: cobbler-2.6.3-1.el6.noarch ---> Package cyrus-sasl-devel.x86_64 0:2.1.26-20.el7_2 will be installed ---> Package geronimo-jms.noarch 0:1.1.1-19.el7 will be installed ---> Package javamail.noarch 0:1.4.6-8.el7 will be installed ---> Package tomcat-servlet-3.0-api.noarch 0:7.0.69-10.el7 will be installed ---> Package xalan-j2.noarch 0:2.7.1-23.el7 will be installed --> Processing Dependency: xerces-j2 for package: xalan-j2-2.7.1-23.el7.noarch --> Processing Dependency: osgi(org.apache.xerces) for package: xalan-j2-2.7.1-23.el7.noarch --> Running transaction check ---> Package Django14.noarch 0:1.4.20-1.el6 will be installed --> Processing Dependency: python(abi) = 2.6 for package: Django14-1.4.20-1.el6.noarch --> Processing Dependency: python-simplejson for package: Django14-1.4.20-1.el6.noarch ---> Package cobbler.noarch 0:2.6.3-1.el6 will be installed --> Processing Dependency: python-simplejson for package: cobbler-2.6.3-1.el6.noarch --> Processing Dependency: python-cheetah for package: cobbler-2.6.3-1.el6.noarch ---> Package xerces-j2.noarch 0:2.11.0-17.el7_0 will be installed --> Processing Dependency: xml-commons-resolver >= 1.2 for package: xerces-j2-2.11.0-17.el7_0.noarch --> Processing Dependency: xml-commons-apis >= 1.4.01 for package: xerces-j2-2.11.0-17.el7_0.noarch --> Processing Dependency: osgi(org.apache.xml.resolver) for package: xerces-j2-2.11.0-17.el7_0.noarch --> Processing Dependency: osgi(javax.xml) for package: xerces-j2-2.11.0-17.el7_0.noarch --> Running transaction check ---> Package Django14.noarch 0:1.4.20-1.el6 will be installed --> Processing Dependency: python(abi) = 2.6 for package: Django14-1.4.20-1.el6.noarch --> Processing Dependency: python-simplejson for package: Django14-1.4.20-1.el6.noarch ---> Package cobbler.noarch 0:2.6.3-1.el6 will be installed --> Processing Dependency: python-simplejson for package: cobbler-2.6.3-1.el6.noarch --> Processing Dependency: python-cheetah for package: cobbler-2.6.3-1.el6.noarch ---> Package xml-commons-apis.noarch 0:1.4.01-16.el7 will be installed ---> Package xml-commons-resolver.noarch 0:1.2-15.el7 will be installed --> Finished Dependency Resolution Error: Package: Django14-1.4.20-1.el6.noarch (cobbler)            Requires: python-simplejson Error: Package: cobbler-2.6.3-1.el6.noarch (cobbler)            Requires: python-simplejson Error: Package: Django14-1.4.20-1.el6.noarch (cobbler)            Requires: python(abi) = 2.6            Installed: python-2.7.5-48.el7.x86_64 (@anaconda)                python(abi) = 2.7                python(abi) = 2.7 Error: Package: cobbler-2.6.3-1.el6.noarch (cobbler)            Requires: python-cheetah  You could try using --skip-broken to work around the problem ** Found 3 pre-existing rpmdb problem(s), 'yum check' output follows: ipa-client-4.4.0-12.el7.centos.x86_64 has installed conflicts freeipa-client: ipa-client-4.4.0-12.el7.centos.x86_64 ipa-client-common-4.4.0-12.el7.centos.noarch has installed conflicts freeipa-client-common: ipa-client-common-4.4.0-12.el7.centos.noarch ipa-common-4.4.0-12.el7.centos.noarch has installed conflicts freeipa-common: ipa-common-4.4.0-12.el7.centos.noarch

 报错解决:提示--skip-broken ,检查发现自己yum源不全yum无法安装上面三个依赖包。补全yum源解决

安装完成,启动软件

[root@bokeyuan ~]# systemctl restart cobblerd.service
[root@bokeyuan ~]# systemctl restart httpd.service
[root@bokeyuan ~]# systemctl enable cobblerd.service  //开机自启动
Created symlink from /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/cobblerd.service to /usr/lib/systemd/system/cobblerd.service.
[root@bokeyuan ~]# systemctl enable httpd.service  //开机自启动
Created symlink from /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/httpd.service to /usr/lib/systemd/system/httpd.service.

为什么启动apache?血的教训,排了很久。不先启动apache 后续cobbler check 报python file 的错误!!!

二.基本配置

[root@bokeyuan ~]# cobbler check The following are potential configuration items that you may want to fix:   1 : The 'server' field in /etc/cobbler/settings must be set to something other than localhost, or kickstarting features will not work.  This should be a resolvable hostname or IP for the boot server as reachable by all machines that will use it. 2 : For PXE to be functional, the 'next_server' field in /etc/cobbler/settings must be set to something other than 127.0.0.1, and should match the IP of the boot server on the PXE network. 3 : change 'disable' to 'no' in /etc/xinetd.d/tftp 4 : some network boot-loaders are missing from /var/lib/cobbler/loaders, you may run 'cobbler get-loaders' to download them, or, if you only want to handle x86/x86_64 netbooting, you may ensure that you have installed a *recent* version of the syslinux package installed and can ignore this message entirely.  Files in this directory, should you want to support all architectures, should include pxelinux.0, menu.c32, elilo.efi, and yaboot. The 'cobbler get-loaders' command is the easiest way to resolve these requirements. 5 : enable and start rsyncd.service with systemctl 6 : debmirror package is not installed, it will be required to manage debian deployments and repositories 7 : The default password used by the sample templates for newly installed machines (default_password_crypted in /etc/cobbler/settings) is still set to 'cobbler' and should be changed, try: "openssl passwd -1 -salt 'random-phrase-here' 'your-password-here'" to generate new one 8 : fencing tools were not found, and are required to use the (optional) power management features. install cman or fence-agents to use them   Restart cobblerd and then run 'cobbler sync' to apply changes.

 一步步解决上述需求,部分需求可忽略。个体差异不同 每个人需求数量也不同,基本上大同小异

解决需求1、2、7
# openssl passwd -1 -salt 'werwqerwqr' '123456'        --123456为密码(这是自动安装客户端系统成功后的root登录密码),werwqerwqr为随机字节干扰码(随便写)
$1$werwqerw$.prcfrYFbwuvkD8XspayN.

# vim /etc/cobbler/settings
384 server: 192.168.100.221   --换成cobbler服务器端的IP
272 next_server: 192.168.100.221   --同上
101 default_password_crypted: "$1$werwqerw$.prcfrYFbwuvkD8XspayN."  --把密码字符串换成你上面产生的字符串(此密码为客户机安装后的root登录密码)

解决需求3
# vim /etc/xinetd.d/tftp
        disable = no    --yes改为no

解决需求5

#systemctl restart rsyncd.service

#systemctl enable  rsyncd.service

解决需求8
# yum install fence-agents

OK,剩下的需求像

4 : some network boot-loaders are missing from /var/lib/cobbler/loaders, you may run 'cobbler get-loaders' to download them, or, if you only want to handle x86/x86_64 netbooting, you may ensure that you have installed a *recent* version of the syslinux package installed and can ignore this message entirely.  Files in this directory, should you want to support all architectures, should include pxelinux.0, menu.c32, elilo.efi, and yaboot. The 'cobbler get-loaders' command is the easiest way to resolve these requirements.
6 : debmirror package is not installed, it will be required to manage debian deployments and repositories

(问题4可以使用cobbler get-loaders解决,但需要有外网和外网的yum源 跳过,现在是NAT模式;问题6 是关于debian系统的,我们这里可以忽略)

最后# systemctl restart cobblerd.service 重起下cobbler补鞋匠服务!

三.导入centos7.3的iso镜像

我的环境iso镜像挂载在/yum目录,此拷贝步骤时间较长

# cobbler import --path=/yum/ --name=centos7.3

# cobbler distro list   --导入成功后,确认导入的镜像名
  centos7.3-x86_64
# cobbler profile list   --导入成功后,确认默认的profile名
  centos7.3-x86_64

[root@bokeyuan ~]# cobbler import --path=/yum/ --name=centos7.3
task started: 2017-09-03_175701_import
task started (id=Media import, time=Sun Sep  3 17:57:01 2017)
Found a candidate signature: breed=RedHat, version=rhel6
Found a candidate signature: breed=redhat, version=rhel7
Found a matching signature: breed=redhat, version=rhel7
Adding distros from path /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/centos7.3:
creating new distro: centos7.3-x86_64
trying symlink: /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/centos7.3 -> /var/www/cobbler/links/centos7.3-x86_64
creating new profile: centos7.3-x86_64
associating repos
checking for rsync repo(s)
checking for rhn repo(s)
checking for yum repo(s)
starting descent into /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/centos7.3 for centos7.3-x86_64
processing repo at : /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/centos7.3
need to process repo/comps: /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/centos7.3
looking for /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/centos7.3/repodata/*comps*.xml
Keeping repodata as-is :/var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/centos7.3/repodata
*** TASK COMPLETE *** 


四.修改dhcp配置
# vim /etc/cobbler/dhcp.template  --在此文件的第21行到第25行修改成你对应的网段和ip   

subnet 192.168.100.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 {
    option routers            192.168.100.221;
    option domain-name-servers 192.168.100.221;
    option subnet-mask        255.255.255.0;
    range dynamic-bootp        192.168.100.100 192.168.100.254;


--图形的操作过程这里省略后续还有这一步 重要

# vim /etc/cobbler/settings   --再去修改这个配置文件,改成dhcp服务由cobbler来管理
242 manage_dhcp: 1       --把0改为1

#  systemctl restart cobblerd.service  --保存后,再重启此服务

五.使用cobbler sync同步,并启动xinetd服务

下面的cobbler sync 很重要,如果这步报错一定要排出来,就经验来说这步出错一般是IP配置出错,记得细心一点,个体差异不用就不详细表述~  

# cobbler sync

[root@bokeyuan ~]# cobbler sync task started: 2017-09-03_180107_sync task started (id=Sync, time=Sun Sep  3 18:01:07 2017) running pre-sync triggers cleaning trees removing: /var/www/cobbler/images/centos7.3-x86_64 removing: /var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux.cfg/default removing: /var/lib/tftpboot/grub/images removing: /var/lib/tftpboot/grub/efidefault removing: /var/lib/tftpboot/images/centos7.3-x86_64 removing: /var/lib/tftpboot/s390x/profile_list copying bootloaders trying hardlink /usr/share/syslinux/pxelinux.0 -> /var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux.0 trying hardlink /usr/share/syslinux/menu.c32 -> /var/lib/tftpboot/menu.c32 trying hardlink /usr/share/syslinux/memdisk -> /var/lib/tftpboot/memdisk copying distros to tftpboot copying files for distro: centos7.3-x86_64 trying hardlink /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/centos7.3/images/pxeboot/vmlinuz -> /var/lib/tftpboot/images/centos7.3-x86_64/vmlinuz trying hardlink /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/centos7.3/images/pxeboot/initrd.img -> /var/lib/tftpboot/images/centos7.3-x86_64/initrd.img copying images generating PXE configuration files generating PXE menu structure copying files for distro: centos7.3-x86_64 trying hardlink /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/centos7.3/images/pxeboot/vmlinuz -> /var/www/cobbler/images/centos7.3-x86_64/vmlinuz trying hardlink /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/centos7.3/images/pxeboot/initrd.img -> /var/www/cobbler/images/centos7.3-x86_64/initrd.img Writing template files for centos7.3-x86_64 rendering TFTPD files generating /etc/xinetd.d/tftp processing boot_files for distro: centos7.3-x86_64 cleaning link caches running post-sync triggers running python triggers from /var/lib/cobbler/triggers/sync/post/* running python trigger cobbler.modules.sync_post_restart_services running shell triggers from /var/lib/cobbler/triggers/sync/post/* running python triggers from /var/lib/cobbler/triggers/change/* running python trigger cobbler.modules.scm_track running shell triggers from /var/lib/cobbler/triggers/change/* *** TASK COMPLETE ***

# systemctl restart xinetd.service
# systemctl enable xinetd.service

六.新建另一个虚拟机 选择网络安装PXE (保证相同私有网络,并且最好2G内存,内存小的话会在安装时报空间不够的错误),进行安装测试

   

安装完成后,更改boot引导

更多详情见请继续阅读下一页的精彩内容: http://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2017-09/146706p2.htm

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